tv PBS News Hour PBS April 10, 2019 6:00pm-7:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour pro, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff.on he newshour tonight, as the votes are tallied in israel, prime minister benjamin netanyahu is set to return for a record fifth term in office. then, a scientific milestone-- researchers reveal the first image ever captured of a black hole. plus, our next report from the boom of the world. the ice in antarctica is melting at an accelerating pace, threatening coastal communities thousands of miles away. >> in areas around some of our biggest cities, new york, e boston, miami, where yout a lot of development, very close to sea level-how do you defend those? a >> woodruff: that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur mmfoundation. ted to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pb statom viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: attorney general william barr revealed today thab ieves u.s. intelligence agencies spied on president trump's 2016 campaign. he also said he's reviewing how the counterintelligence investigation into russian collusion began. during his second day of congressional testimony, barr told a senate panel he wanted to
ceke sure that if surveill did occur, it followed properoc ures. >> i think spying did occur, bui the qu is whether it was a predicateddequately predicated and i'm not suggesting it wasn't adequately predicated but i'd need to ouplore that. i'm not talking the f.b.i. necessarily, but intelligence agencies more broadly. >> woodruff: barr acknowledged he did not have any specific evidencef wrongdoing. senate minority leader chuck schumer lar said barr needed to retract his statement about the spying or pride evidence to support it. and house speaker nancy pelosi told the associated press she doesn't trust barr. >> i'm very concerned about they statements madttorney general barr. e i think that they undermr constitution. they undermine the role of thern at general. he is not the attorney general of donald trump. he is thattorney general of the united states. >> woodruff: barr's review is
separate from an ongoing justice department inspector general inquiry into the f.b.i.'s handling of the russia probe.ba said he expects those results in may or june. earlier, as he left the white house, president trump again insisted the mueller investigation was politically motivated. >> it was an illegal investigation. it was started illegally. ooeverything about it was d. every single thing about it.er were dirty cops. these were bad people.mp this was an atd coup. this was an attempted take-down of a president. >> woodruff: barr said today he'll release a redacted version of mueller's report to the public next week. president trump insisted again today that he won't release his tax returns anytime soon. today was the deadline congressional democrats set for the i.r.s. to turn over six years of mr. trump's returns. the president told reportersis orning that he would
"love" to release them, but won't while he's under audit by the i.r.s. the treasury department has yet to respond to the request. in israel, minister benjamin netanyahu is poised to serve a record fifth term, after his rival's party conceded defeat. he ran a tight race against his centrist challenger, former military chief benny gantz. netanyahu celebrated his victory with supporters today in tel aviv. he'll now become israel's ngest-serving leader. we'll have more on the israelift election right the news summary. british prime minister theresa may was in brussels today, lobbying for another e on the u.k. 's departure date from the european unio she told top e.u. officials another delay would give her more time to secure a brexit deal that could pass in parliame. e.u. member states held an emergency sessn to vote on whether or not to grant a second extension.
without one, the u.k. is set to ave the bloc friday without a deal. we'll have more on the pivotal vote later in the program. new zealand's paiament has voted to ban most semi-automatis weapons anult rifles. that comes less than a month after a gunman opened fire on two mosques in christchurch, killing 50 people and wounding dozens more. today, prime minister jacinda ardern praised the nearly animous vote in wellington. >> i could not fathom how weapons that could cause such destruction and large-scale death could have been obtained legally in this country. >> woodruff: the bill requires the approval of new zealand's governor general, but it's expected to become law on friday. after that, anyone with a military-style weapon could face to five years in prison. the death toll from a cyclone ie so africa has now topped 1,000 people. the powerful srm ripped
through mozambique, zimbabwe,mo and malawi lash. crews are still searching for remains of the dead. a cholera outbreak ahe cyclone's survivors in mozambique threate to increase the number of casualties even more. back in this country, acting deputy homeland security secretary claire grady has resigned. that paves the way for president trump's pick kevin mcaleenan, the commissioner of u.s. customs and border protection, to become the acting sretary of homeland security. but it also leaves the actg deputy position unfilled. mcaleenan's departure from customs and border protection means it now won't have a commissioner. the acting head of u.s. immigration and customs enforcement ron vitiello is stepping down friday, leaving a vacancy at the top of that ency as well. president trump left open the
possibility today of sending additional u.s. troops to the southern border. he came to that conclusion after listening to stories about migrant crossings at a republican fundraiser in san antonio, texas. some 5,000 active-duty and g nationrd troops are currently stationed at the border. and wall street managed a modest advance today. the dow jones industrial average gained six points to close at 26,157. the nasdaq rose 55 points, and the s&p 500 added 10.on still to comhe newshour: israeli prime minister benjamin netayahu is poised to win a historic fifth term. european union leaders hold an emergency session to vote on the u.k.'s requestor a brexit extension. the first image ever captured of a black hole, and much more.
>> woodruff: we return to israel, and benjamin netanyahu's apparent victory. john yang is covering the election for us, and tonight he's in tel aviv. >> yang: after a nail-biter of a night that saw both israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu and his challenger, retired army general benny gantz, declare victory, israelis awoke this morning to near-final results showingli netanyahu'd party and gantz's blue and white, both center-right, each winning 35 seats in the 120-member israeli legislature, called the knesset. but including the seats of minor partie netanyahu appears to have a clear advantage of as many as 65 seats-- majority. te today, gantz conceded defeat. >> it's a total victory for netanyahu. >> yang: aluf benn is editor-in- chief of the israeli newspaper ha'aretz.
>> there was not eno netanyahu fatigue. obviously all those who voted for gantz, they voted to oust netanyahu but it wasn't enough to make him leave his job. >> yang: president trump was among the world leaders offering congratulation >> so, the fact that bi won, i think we'll see some pretty good action in terms of peace. >> yang: in the streets of tel aviv today, voters engaged in a national pastime: expressing their opinions. bike store manager ronen friedman voted for netanyahu.ed >> ( transl ): i feel that something great was done in israel. the public has spoken >> ( translated ): i'm glad about the outcome. because i think bibi is doing an amazing job. >> yang: psychotherapist talia haim voted for the once-powerful labor party, which was aligned with gantz. >> i'm really upset. i'm really sad. i think that we really needed a change and that once again it'sh stayinsame. >> yang: software engineer sajajr wider voted for gantz,
and holds out hope for netanyahu¡s coalition partners. >> i would like the coalition to people who care about t country meaning leaving the heght and left wing extremist out and probablyasidic jews as well. the election gives likud its biggest share of knesset seats since 2006. alysts say that simplifi netanyahu's coalition-building and makes his government relatively stable since a single, minor party ot be able to bring it down. analysts say re-election allows netanyahu to say he has a mandate to fight looming corruption charges. >> he can argue that the israeli public, knowing what the charges are, knowing what he supposedly did to break the law, despite that voted to keep him in office. in other words, keeping netanyahu in office is more important than enforcing the white collar criminal law on the
country's top politician. >> yang: following netanyahu's pledge to begin annexing the west bank, the results highlight the israeli public's rejection of the two-state solution to the palestinian conflict.de tal schnis diplomatic correspondent for the israelipe financial news "globes." >> we keep hearing the two state solution coming from european allies and from the u.s., but if you start to talk to the people on the you most of them we don't believe in a palestinian state >> yang: trump administration officials say they will release eir peace plan soon. while israeli voters kept their prime minister, they also gave a platform to a new leader fighting against him. >> the results represent a significant acmplishment for gantz, a first-time candidate, and thrust his new party into the role of the opposition the role of opposition leade could be a new and unfamiliar one for gantz, who was netanyahu's army chief of staff. >> it's not an easy task for someone with zero experience in litics.
he was in the military where you reach your goals from giving orders.eg not fromiations like in politics. >> imagine to yourself, he has two chief of staff with him. like, two other former chief i.d.f. one was also a defense minister. and this respectable, honorable group will just have to start writing bills and laws from bottom up. and i mean, it's n going to be, it's going to be fun for reporters because they're going be make lots of mistakes but it's not going tasy for them. >> yang: for now, netanyahu is headed to a fifth straight term as prime minister, and poised to soon surpass founding father david ben-gurion, one of the nation's fouers, as the longest serving leader ever. for the pbs newshour, i'm john yang in tel aviv. >> woodruff: unlikely as it sounds, we now have an image of that invisible space anomaly, a
black hole, a cosmic abyss with gravity of such intensity that nothing, notvelight, escapes it. a team of astronomers made the image public at a press conference in washington, d.c. this morning. we start our report tonight th this background video from the world science festival and voiced by its co-founder, brian gr ane, professor of physicst columbia university. it's the latest in our weekly science and technology series, "the leading ee." >> about 100 years ago, albeus einstein gava new description of the force of gravity in which gravity exerts its influence through warps and curves in the fabric of space and time. just a couple of yea later, karl schwarzschild, he was a german astronomer, who was stationed on theussian front during world war i and charged with tackling artillery trajectories, he somehow gets ahold of einstein's manuscript and realizes somhing amazing.
if you take a spherical object and you squeeze it down to a sufficiently small size, coordination to einstein's math, the gravitational pull will be so enormous, that nothing will be ablo escape, not even light. and that is what we mean by "a black hole." now, when einstein caught wind of these results, he didn't believe it. he didn't think that these injects would actually be out therhe universe. and yet, in the ensuing decades, theoretical developmenbegan to mount, showing that black holes were the ineabvit outcome of massive star that had used up their nuclear fuel, undergone a supernova explosion, and the resulting core would have no ability to withstand the pull of gravity, and would collapse down into a black hole. in the observational case it also began to mount. studies of t center of our milky way galaxy showed stars whipping around the center atrm such ens speeds, that the
only explanation for the object that could exert thowerful gravity responsible for thatti would be a very massive black hole, perhaps four millios times the of the sun. and perhaps the most convrvincig obional evidence to date actually comes from gravitational waves. when we receive the first ripples in the fabric of space lack backin 2015,he only e planation for the pattern of thoswaves was two blacesk hol very distant that collided, setting off this tidal wave ine spat we were able to detect. >> woodruff: and brian greene of columbia university joins us now. so, tell us, it's clear from what you just were repting, scientists have known about black holes, suspected about black holes for lontime. what does it mean that we now have an actual photograph of one? >> well, now, we know for the first time that they are actually real, tt einstein's mathematics describes a real monster that exists out there in
the universe, where mass is crushed at such a fantastically small size, that the gravitational pull exceeds anything that that weev haver encountered anywhere else in the universe. so it is a wonderful moment of confirmation. a>> woodruff: so let's lo that picture again. the black center and the expred yellowanickle, if you would,d tell us what we're looking at here. >> yeah, so the center is the blackness, the black home hoel. anat's where the name comes from. the light that you see around the ee of the black hole, that is light that is emitted by hot gas as it swirls around the black usle, and before it falls over the edge into the abyss, it emits light that is able to swirl around and ultimately reach us. now, you're looking at a black t hot is 53 million light-years away, in a galaxy called m-87. so that reddish-orange light has been traveling tow for about 53 million years. and, yet, this wonderful team or
astronhas been able to capture those photons and recreate the image, recreate the environment there which they originated their journey. >> woodruff: so now that the scientists, the astronomers have this image, what do they do next? what are the next questions about a black hole? >> well, there are so many questis, but, briefly, we really want to understand what happens when something falls er the edge of a black hole? einstein gave us one story, butt it did no take into account quantum physics. so the nexoft stehe journey is to really understand how the laws of the sma quantum mcics meld with einstein's law of the big, his general theory of relativity. and these kinds ofmages may take us the next step toward finally understanding how to marry those two theories together. >> woodruff: does this cha cnge whildren will learn in elementary school about space? >> one day, iithink absolutely might, because gravity is the mosrtt impot force governing the largest things in the universe.
and when we can finally take images of gravity in the most extreme environments-- those are the environments we theorists love. those are the laboratories where can push our theories to the the limit. and when we can finally take imagery in those do mains, it ultimately will probably find its way into the textbooks. >> woodruff: and remind us again, how close to earth is thl nearesk hole? >> well, we know one in the center of our milky way galaxy, which is 26,000 light-years away. so it's not as though these things a right next door. but it's wondrous that we can build machines that can take photograph as if they were nearby. i mean, how amazing is it that the atack hole was 53 million light-years away looks like it's someghing that is out there that you could touch. >> woodruff: and, finally, when people headar, rebout something that can suck everything around it into it because of the powerful forces of gravido people on earth have anything to be afraid of when it comes to a black hole?
>> well, it's a natural thought. no, whi have no really to be afraid of. these are just wonderful laboratoriesn which we can push our understanding. in fact, i would turn it around. you know, we live in ts fractured world. and how wondrous is it that 100 scientists on four continents using eight radio telescopes in their worevk, now allowery citizen in planet earth to look up and recognize that there are these deep, fundamental truths that transcend everything that divides us. to me, that is tl he reamessage of this breakthrough. >> woodruff: that's a wonderful way to look at it. brian gre yene, tha very much. columbia university. we appreciate it. >> thank you. >> woodruff: we contow with our series from antarctica. the ice-covered continent is being transformed, in part, by
climate change. antarctica's ice, which contains the vast majority of freshwater onarth, is melting at an accelerating rate. william brangham andcers mike fritz and emily carpeaux traveled there and have this report on how coastal communities all over the world could be impacted. it's part of our occasional series of reports, "peril and omise, the challenge of climate change." >> brangham: for as far as thear eye can see, aica is covered by thick sheets of ice. in some aces, that ice is several miles deep. this massive connent, as big as the u.s. and mexico combined, hanfor millions of years, b home to some of the most breathtaking landscapes ofce on the planet. what you can see behind me here is a very good cross-section of a glacier in antarctica. and what you see with all those different layers-- that is hundreds and thousands of years of snow and precipitation stacking up, one on top of the
other, and slowly exerting pressure downward on those layers of snow. and that's how a glacier is formed. but antarctica's ice is now increasingly being threatened, and most researchersieve it's because of climate change. accord one recent study, the continent's ice is slipping away six times faster than it ls 40 years ago. >> antarctica is ning 252 gigatons of ice per year. >> brangham: glaciologist joe mcgregor is part of the team at nasa's goddardntpace flight that's studying antarctica's ice. using radar and lasers, they measure the thickness of the ice and how its moving. they can also measure ether the ice is growing or shrinking. help me understand what that means, 252 gigatons? >> a gigaton is a billion metric tons of ice. second, and when you do the math, you wind up with the antarctic ice sheet is out of balance by more than three and a
ndlf swimming pools per se >> brangham: let me make sure i get at: every second, three olympic sized swimming pools worth of ice is disappearing from antarctica? >> yes. when considered, on average, over a year. >> brangham: just to put that in perspective, in the amount of time it takes to watch this story, antarctica will sd more y water than newk city uses every day. the warming that many believe is causing this ice loss varies in different parts of the continent. here on the antarctic peninsula, the long branch of land coming on the northwest corner, warming has been especially pronounced. at the vernadsky research station, which is run by the ukrainian government,is meteorol like oleksandr poluden have been keeping someof he longest-term temperature records on the continent. while it's warmed and cooled at different times, poluden says the overall trend here on the peninsula is clear: >> ( translated ): you wthl
notice thatemperature doesn't tend to increase all the time. there are some fluctuations over time. it b evident that over about 70 years, the average year-round temperature has increased by 3.5 degrees. >> it's becoming clearer that parts of antarctica appear to be unstable, and are losing ice much faster than we expected. >> brangham: michael oppenheimer is a climate scientist and professor of geoscience at princeton university. he says this ice loss will only accelerate sea level rise, which happens for two reasons: one, a warming atmosphere warms t oceans, and warmer water expands and rises. secondly, warming also melts ice and glaciers all over the world, , nding water into the oce problem that's increasing in antarctica. >> so ultimately, if we lose all the ice that's vulnerable a warming of only a few degrees, we're talking about a very, very, very, big sea level rise. >> brangham: the most recent u.n. report predicts a foot of
a-level rise this century if we continue burning oil and gas and coal at our current pace. but a growing number of researchers believe that because of the emissions we've already put into the atmosphere, that pred threat.derstates the >> essentially, the continent's o,warming from below and aou know, from above. >> brangham: alexandra iserner es all antarctic science for the national science foundation, who, for the record, is a newshour underwriter. she says that in west antarctica, two huge glaciers-- pine island d thwaites-- are considered at risk of collapse. >> certainly there's some researchers that study pine islands and the thwaites glacier that feel that it's become sufficiently destabilized that we won't be able to recover. >> brangham: michael oppenheimer says, if just one of those glaciers winds up in the ocean, sea levels will rise five times higher than thu.n. predicted. >> the current estimates are that if the waites glacier in antarctica were to totally disintegrate into the ocean,
that ultimately, s level rise would rise by something like five feet. in areas around some of our biggest cities, new york, boston, miami, where you've got a lot of development: homes, buildings, infrastructure, roads, right up by the coast. how do you defend those? but how would bangladesh protect itself? it's got many hundred of miles of coastline. it's all right at sea level. you can't build a wall to protect that whole coast.e' thactually nothing that can be done. >> brangham: that's millions of people that are going to he to move. >> right. there are 150 million people in bangladesh and probably a few million are going to have to move. and where are they goio go in such a densely populated country? and there's already strife when people try teymove. ry to move into india? people get killed trying to do that now. what's going to happenyou have a few million people that all of a sudden try to move? it's not a pretty picture. >> brangham: part of the reason antarctica's reglaciers
threatened is that they've been losing some crucial protection. many glaciers form what are known as ice shelves-- huge platforms of ice-- some as wide as texas and hundreds of stories tall-- that grow out over the ocean, and they help hold their much larger glaciers up on land. they hold it back and not let it slide into the sea. >> so you can imagine a piece of ice the size of texas. pretty thick. it's going to slow the i as it tries to flow into the ocean. >> brangham: robin bell, of columbia university's lamont- doherty earth observatory, has been studying antarctica's ice for over 20 years >> they are essentially acting as a bouncer in the bar, leaning up against the door and keeping the ice from flowing into the ocean. >> brangham: but as the atmosphere keeps warming, major ice shelves in antarctve also been collapsing. in 2002, the larsen b ice shelf ze of rhode island, completely disintegrated. these are satellite images oit breaking into hundreds of
pieces. as predicted, the glaciers that larsen b anchored up on land, began accelerating towards the ocean. and then, two years ago, the even bigger laen c shelf, this it from the air, developed that miles-long crack in it.he this, which sits in front of the thwaites glacier, is also pacrumbling. an of the brunt ice shelf is expected to break rff any day noeasing an iceberg that'll be twice the size of manhattan. there's still some debate er whether human-induced warming is the only thing causing these changes. antarctica has lost ice many times before, and that also caused the seas to rise. researchers are now trying to determine how much warmth it takes toause truly catastrophic sea level rise.er that glaou see behind me connects up over that peak to the massive west antarctic ice sheet. and all of those layers of snow and ice, built up over hundreds of thousands of years, contain a
remarkable history of earth's st climate. >> it's like a tape recorder, a 10,000 foot tape recorder in places. so scientists have drilled ice cores through the la down as they can get, and then they analyze those layers. >> brangham: glaciologist robert mulvaney, that's him in the black cap, works for the british antarctic survey. he and a small team have been drilling over 2,000 feet down into the ice sheet, pulling out these ice cores. ma what we've been trying to do is recover our c record over the last 120 to 140,000 years to try to understand how our climate might change over the next hundred years or so as the clime responds to increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.m: >> branghe evidence from these ice cores, and many others, indicate that when the earth's climate was just a little bit warmer than it is today, the world's oceans were over twenty feet higher.
>> at two degrees warmer climate gave a sea level rise of about six to nine metres more than present. >> brangham: given that there are stil over how serious sea-level rise will be, and over what time span it'll occur, michael oppenheimer es that there's still time to act and to prepare. >> it doesn't mean we should throw up our hands and run.st let't thinking straight about how we're going to help people. how we're going to help countries deal with the outcome, because it's not going to be pretty, it's going to expensive, and it's going to be disruptive, if we don't get our act together, now. >> brangham: this year, teams from several different nations e studying the thwaites glacier, trying to determine whether it's past the point of no return, and if so, how soonco its icd end up in the ocean. for the pbs newshour, i'm william brangham in antarctica.
>> woodruff: as we reported earlier, thefficial death toll d mozambique topped 1000 today, after last monthdly cyclone. the needs of many in the nations affected are enormous,mna nawaz speaks now with a man who's helping to lead that crisis response. >> nawaz: the united nations calledt one of the deadliest storms on record in the southern hemisphere. cyclone idai ripd across southern africa nearly one month ago, destroying thousands of homes, leaving tens ofhousands of people homeless, and turning massive swaths of ground into inland oceans. the full scale of the devastation is still unknown. a final death toll, officials worry, may never be know nearly two million people were in the cyclone's direct path, hitting malawi, zimbabwe, and mozambique, the country hardest- hit by the storm.wh and that ie executive
director of the world food programme, david beasley,is recentlyed to see firsthand the scope of the damage, and plan for a response that he says wveral months.ns he je here now. welcome back to the newshour. >> well, it's good to be here. thank you very much. >> nawaz: so you have visited countless disaster zones. what did you see on the ground here? what are the most immediate needs? when we hit the isaster zone, it was quite remarkable because we hadelicopters coming in. in fact, we couldn't deliver foods for the first few das because there was nothing availabe. we had to take our helicopters, use them to really pull pethople oftop of buildings, out of trees. it was a catastrophe.e all ads were shut shutdown, bridges were out, no electricity anywhere in the country. so now, now, we have scaled up to about over 1.1 million people that e are supporting. but here's the problem-- not only has a quarter of a million homes been destroyed or partially destroyed. it's-- that's a castrophe in itself.
but the crops. almost two million acres harvest gone. and for the next crop, for the nervest. so an entire year's worth of food is gone. so we are in a desperate situation. we need $175 million just for the next three months to keep peopleac ve. at this stage, we've got about 40%. pe we really are grateful to be here to let thele around the world know that we need help, and we need it noaz >> naw: let me ask you aboutu. the response. the state department had a briefing yesterday. the u.s. ambassador to zambique said so far theu.s. has donated about $fourth million worth of immediate goodh? is that eno do you need more. >> we will need more. and other countries are beginning to step up-- e university of north carolina, germany, and others. so we're hopeful. and the cyclone came and gonete, buamage is there. in today's world it's all about brexit, brexit, brexit, trump, trump, trump. i'm like whoa, we have people dying over here. we need your help, and we need
it now. we're hopeful but we need another $75 million just for the next three months. and then you've the next nine months as we reconstruct, rebuild. because we sti have children standing in water. the water was 33 feet high. certain villages are just completely gone. no electricity. malaria, cholera kicking in. io we're not out of the storm yet on this th. a lot more work to be done. >> nawaz: there is also now a concern about a second wave of disaster, right. there's the water-borne illnesses that often follow, seasonal illnesses, a cholera outbreak, mautlaria break. are folks on the ground equipped to contain that? >> yes. we brought in immediately 100 of our best personnel. we now have over 240 of our personnel on the ground spread throughout the couw ry because 're getting access. we're rebuilding roads. we brought in engineers. we'rbringing in t technicians for water supply, electricity, the things that are necessary. but this is a massive area, and so without electricity, you can't get clean water in a lot of these aras.
so malaria will kick in. cholera is already beginning to dig in. so we're doing everything we can to get the vacnes, medical supplies, as well as trying rebuild the power structures, working with the u.n., as went as other coes in the region. >> nawaz: there's another part of the world in which your teams are on t ground and anoher worrying cholera outbreak there, that's in yemen. four years of war there have just had unimaginable consequences for millions of people, mostly women and children. our own janbe ferguson han on the ground reporting. she's been capturing some of these heartbreaking images of children caught in the middle and starving. what is keeping your teams on the ground from being able to get the food and aid to these children? >> yemen is the earth's greatest catastrophe. literally, a nation of 30 million people, 20 million people food insecure, 12 million people on the brink of starvation. we are doing everything we can to get access we need. the funding is now comoing in t the degree we need. but access is a critical dynamic anissue that we facvery
single day. there are people in harm's way, trying to get food out into the hinder lands where the people that need it. we say to all sides in this wa, "don't let these innocent people be victim to th the only way you're going to solve the problem in yemen is end that it needs to be ended. >> nawaz: that access, i should mention, is because of e insecurity. the violence has been escalating. the saudi-led coaliti air strikes continue. there were just two this morning. i want to ask you about this. the u.s. congress has takenn unprecedented step, the most serious step they've taken, they voted to end u.s. military assistce to the saudi-led effort there, the war there. with the u.s. pulling on the, that will help you todo you job, to get the aid where it needs to go? >> well, we'll let the politicians make the political decisions about war and conflict. we say, ok, do not let innocent people suffer as a result of politics. there are children whose lives are in danger, children dying as we speak. give us the support, regardless of your politics. give us the support we need and summit doesn't mean just money.
it also means access. we have to have access, unimpeded access by all sides to make certain that we keep people alive and give them a brighter future. >>: one other incredibly dire situation in which your teams are on the ground in venezuela, a country already in trouble before. the power struggle, exacerbated conditions. you ve severe shortages. a mass exodus of people. meanwhile, aid trucks are stuck at the border do you have any, any indication that your aid will be able tma its way in any time soon? >> i wish we could talk about something good, but there's another country, a region in crisis. are summiting about half a million people outside of venezuela for those who cross into columbia, e, and other regions. and we are talking now with both sides, hoeful to have th access we need to make certain that the innocent children and people t not ge politicized so that we can help support the people there. it is a-- it is a very difficult situation. but we'rmaking, i hope, some
headway. >> nawaz: you believe there could be some movement soo the aid could make its way in? >> i hope so. >> sreenivasan: and that the wer struggle you mentioned before nicolas maduro and juan guaido. >> we're talking to both sides. >> nawaz: david beasly of the world food very much for being here. >> woodruf the united states is battling one of its largest measles outbreaks in decades with65 cases confirmed natio wide and 78 new cases in the la week alone. new york city habecome a particular hotspot with 285 confirmed cases since last fall. 21 of those have been hospitalized, five of them inte ive care. the outbreak there has centered in ultra-orthodox jewish communities in brooklyn where opposition to receiving
vaccinations runs high. yesterday, new york city mayor bill de blasio declared a public health emergency requiring anyone who has not be vaccinated to receive one or face possible fines. for more on what the city is facing, i am joined by dr.ir barbot, commissioner of new york city's department of health and mental hygiene. dr. barbot, thank you very much for talking with us. first of all, bring us up to ituation there in new york. >> so, as you mentioned, we currently have 285 individuals who have contracted the ill after having it declared eradicateeradicated in 2000. it's the largest outbreak thatsi we've hance 1991. and with this public health emergency,e want new yorkers, especially those in brooklyn, williamsburg, t so tariously the fact that measles has siificant consequences, a it's presentsible.
>> woodruff: so an emergency order was necessary in your view. >> yes. you know, and we didn't take this decision lightly. we started working with the communities in terms ofil excluding en who were exposed to measles from schools, and that didn't do the trick. we worked with schools in terms of issuing notices of violations, and even-- and most imrtantly, we worked with the community to dispel any myths and undo any negative or wrong information they hth because 'd gotten it from anti-vaccine communities. and so, weseid e that since the beginning of the outbreak, we have been able to get over 8,000 new yorkers in thatmm ity and one other that have high numrsvaccinated. and so we see that as positive proof that our efforts are working. but the reality is that people are still getting the measles,
to there's more that we need do >> woodruff: what about since you issued this order yesterday are, people complying nw? >> you know, i think it's too early to tell. and we have certainly had a lot of inquiries about how we'r going to enforce it, what people should do, and, you know, the most important thing that we want people to know is that we will work with any and all individuals who have concerns, questions about want vaccine's safety, to reassure them that the vaccine is safe. we we t to mak easy for people to be vaccinate vaccinatn three days of being exposed, because we don't want it t to having to issue violations. we want new yorkers, especially those in wg,lliamsbo get vaccinated and feel good about getting their children vaccinated. >> woodruff: well, that's what i nted to ask you, beause i know through that community, there runsa strong belief against vaccinations. so how are you persuading the
that they're safe? >> we have been working with community-based organizations, health care providers in that community, and mopost imrtantly, faith-based leaders. and in addition, we haveken out several ads in yiddish newspapers. we have done ro ocalls over 30,000 households. we have done direct liis in yiddish to these households. and we have made offers of meeting with any and all groups to dispel any myths about the safety of the v.x., and to reassure them we want to make it easy to get the children vaccinated. because the reality is, measles is so incredibly contagious that we want to maximize the number of people vaccinated and feeling good about it. >> woodruff: are you prepared eye mean, first of all, how are you enfoi ing this? anow there's a time limit. i think you said in the first-- you expect this done in the next 48 hours or so. but if people don't comply, are
you prepared to require-- to force people to have vaccinations? >> so this order applies to dividuals who develop measles t or are expos individuals who have measles, and they,em lves, are found to be nonvaccinated. again, the emphasis is going to be thelp them become vaccinated within three days. and the reality that if, indeed, someone, despite all of our efforts, refuses to be vaccinated, then we will issue violations, which will be $1,000 for each instance. so, for example, if a parent has a child who develops measles, they're unvaccinated, thefu to be vaccinated, for every child they have, it will be $1,000. >> woodruff: and i read that jail time is partf this. is that right? >> you know, we haven't talkedab t that. and, again, we will evaluatei everyuation on an individual base, because the emphasis here
is to support parents in making well-informed decisions that are going to help keep thilr en safe and healthy, and beyond tha ensure that we maximize the number of individuals across the entire community that are immunized. because it's important to note that there a some individuals who can't get vaccinated. so, yor example, infantsnger than six months of age can't be va inated. and ve had situations where, unfortunately, there have been infants who have developed the measles, have ended in the hospital, and have ended up needing cat thareally could have been prevented by individuals around them becoming vaccinated. >> woodruff: dr. oxiris barbot, who is the new york cit commissioner for health and mental hygiene, thank you. >> thank you.
>> woodruff: tonight european leaders are literally burning the midnight oil, trying tono avoid an ec catastrophe. it is past midnight in brussels, and 28 heads of government are negotiating whether to give the u.k. an extension on its departure from the e.u. >> there is some breaking ifws and nick sn has the story. >> the u.k. has been staring at a a deadline 48 hours from nw, without an extension they would crash out of of the european union amid warnings that that crash would cause a recessionn juste last few minutes, there's been word that there might be some breathing room. the negotiationsare going on right now in brussels where we find amanda sloat, former deputy assistant secretary of state and way senior fellow brookings institution. t we are getting word th extension has been granted or at least the european europeans had on an extension until octer 31. they're talking to the prime minister, theresa may, right now. what more details do we have? and why october 31?
>> that's correct. it's almost 1:00 a.m. here. leaders have been meeting for nearly seven hours with theresa may. what we are hearing now is that they are prepared to offer an extension until october 31. the significance of that date is that is when the new european commission will meet. french prensident emmanuel mac was certainly the most hard line coming into these negotiations, anour understanding from reports coming out of the room is that he was up against the vast majority of other member states in terms of insisting on a short extension, whereas many of the others were sympathetic to a long extension. he had two primary focuses in terms of maintaining the integrity of the working of the e.u. institutions. the first requirement, which the u.k. had been prepared to meet, os to hold european parliament elections at the e may if it hadn't reached an agreement until then. the second thing macron was quite focused on was wanting to ensure that the commission was le to function, and in particular, was talk about removing the british
commissioner so given what we are understanding from these results, which as you said are now being presented tost prime mi may, it seems that french president ma cone won in terms of getting a shorter extension, but perhaps slightly longer than what he was initially hoping for. there's also an expectation that there will be a review mechanism inreune to see whehe u.k. is in terms of having held these u.k. elections and whether it i on track to leave by the end of october. >> schifrin: let's zoom out a little bit here for people just to understand this moment. we had this deadline, 48 hours from now, warnings from the i.msm p.f. that there would be a two-year recession, least, if the british crashed out. bottom line it's brltish wil not crash out on friday, but they still don't know whabr it is exactly going to be. there is still no agreement from the british side yet, is there? >> absolutely. an extension is simply a delay. it is not a deal. and so the challenge now is still, as it has always been, for the u.k. to reach an
agreement. theresa may had announced last week that she was going to begin holding cross-party talks with labor leader jeremyrbyn. those talks have been continuing. they do not appear to be goingul partly well in terms of moving tornadoes an agreement. if they do reach ageement, the question is going to be whether it will hold and be ratifi by both of their parties. if that doesn't succeed, theresa may says shevewill ha a party hold a series of votes in appearing various options on the wayforward, two series of indicative votes and still is no closer to reaching majority agreement. >> schifrin: we lost you just for a second there. just to zoom in. theresa may is talking to jeremy corbyn, the labor leader bwhat kind of brexit that they could agree on. they're trying to make an agreent on two main things-- one, so-called softer brexit, some kind of staying inside the european customs union.mi and up with possibly a second referendum. is there any sign isof compr on that fundamental fact that the brits still have to agree on
what form of brexit will be>>? think it's going to remain quite complicated. the two leaders seem to be having negotiations in good faith, but the problem is that there are spits within both f their parties. jeremy corbyn has long been advocating a softer brexit inrm of continued participation in the customs union. tois is going to be anathema the hard brexits in theresa may's party asell as her mainstream members. the secondary issue will be then second refm. jeremy corbyn himself is not super enthused about this. there is splits in the party between those who won't support him if h te does andhose who won't support him if he doesn't. the question will be what sort ll compromise agreement can they reach? t just be a customs union, a customs union with the second referendum? even they can reach agreemento between the tw leaders will what they produce have enough votes to actually gain majority suppor in material? >>reenivasan: amanda sloat we'll have to leave is there,
former state department official, brookings senior fell oh, thank you very much. >> woodruff: finally tonight, highlighting a new voice in folk music. j.s. ondara was inspired by bob dylan as a teenager in nariobi, kenya. and nearly a decade later, he's now living in the u.s. and is out with his first album this spring. we caught up with him as he kicked off a tour at the songbyrd cafe, in washington,pa d.c. a of our ongoing arts and culture series, "canvas." ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> i knew that i wanted to be a lk singer when i was about 17 years old and discovered folk
music through bob dylan. my name is j. ondara and i'm a folk singer from kenya. i was born in nairobi, kenya. i'd grown up listening to all these rock songs and i was familiar with this song, "knockin' on heaven's door," and i was quite confident it was a guns n' roses song. and i was havi this fight with a friend who said it was by this guy called bob dylannd i was like, no, it's not. so we made a bet and i lost the bet, but by losing the bet i discovered dylan and fell into this rabbit hole of folk music. when i was 17 an music and made this conscience
goal, dream really to move to america and try to find a career as a folk singer, i tried everything ttry to make that foen. you know, i applieschools, i applied for jobs and nothing really worked for years. i came to america through the green card lottery. with this card you can be a resident in america, you can move to america, you can settle in the there. and have a life when that happened it randomly felt as though it was some kind of manifestation of destiny. with this record, tales of america, contemplating about the
times that we are in in america. contemplating about how i fit as an immigrant in the times in america. you know, contemplating about the american dream. what does it mean for someone who's not in america, and how does that contrast to the actual experice of being aesident in america? ♪ ♪ ♪ and so i hope in some way to breathe life to the idea of the american dream because perhaps it's something that people ire
losing fai i hope in some fashion tt through the life and through tht tales to rejuvthis idea, and not just for americans, but i think for people all around the world. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> and thank you. ( applause ) >> woodruff: beautiful music reminding us again that music reaches all the way around the world. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs
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